ImPACT Version 4

Administration and Interpretation Manual

[Download PDF Version of the Manual]

Appendix A. References

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  • Bell, D.R., Guskiewicz, K.M., Clark, M.A., Padua, D.A. (2003). Balance Error Scoring Symptom Test (BEST). Chapel Hill, NC.
  • Benedict, R.H. (1997). Brief Visuospatial Memory Test-Revised (BVMT-R™). Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources.
  • Broglio, S.P., Macciocchi, S.N., Ferrara, M.S. (2007). Sensitivity of the concussion assessment battery. Neurosurgery, 60(6):1057-1058.
  • Delis, D.C., Kaplan, E., and Kramer, J.H. (2001). Delis-Kaplan Executive System™ (D-KEFS). San Antonio, TX: Pearson.
  • Dishion, Kim, Hanjoe, Stormshak, O’Neill (2014). A Brief Measure of Peer Affiliation and Social Acceptance (PASA): Validity in an Ethnically Diverse Sample of Early Adolescents. J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol. 43(4):601-1.
  • Erlanger, D., Feldman, D., & Kutner, K. (1999). Concussion Resolution Index. New York: HeadMinder, Inc.
  • Green, P., (2003, revised 2005) Medical Symptom Validity Test (MSVT). Edmonton, Canada, Green’s Publishing.
  • Gardner, R. C., Dams-O'Connor, K., Morrissey, M. R., & Manley, G. T. (2018). Geriatric Traumatic Brain Injury: Epidemiology, Outcomes, Knowledge Gaps, and Future Directions. Journal of neurotrauma, 35(7), 889–906.
  • Gerrard PB, Iverson GL, Atkins JE, et al. Factor Structure of ImPACT® in Adolescent Student Athletes. Arch Clin Neuropsychol. 2017;32(1):117-122. doi:10.1093/arclin/acw097
  • Hale, S., Myerson, J., Smith, G. A., & Poon, L W (I 988). Age, variability, and speed: Between-subjects diversity. Psychology and Aging, 3, 407-410
  • Iverson GL, Lovell MR, Collins MW. Interpreting change on ImPACT following sport concussion. Clin Neuropsychol. 2003;17(4):460-467.
  • Iverson GL, Lovell MR, Collins MW (2005). Validity of ImPACT for Measuring Processing Speed Following Sports-Related Concussion, Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 27:6, 683-689
  • Iverson GL, Brooks BL, Collins MW, Lovell MR (2006). Tracking neuropsychological recovery following concussion in sport. Brain Inj. 20(3):245-252.
  • Iverson, GL., Sawyer, DC, McCracken, LM, & Kozora, E. (2001). Assessing depression in systemic lupus erythematosus: Determining reliable change. Lupus, 10 (4), 266–271.
  • Jacobson, Traux. Clinical Significance: A Statistical Approach to Defining Meaningful Change in Psychotherapy Research. J. of Consult. and Clin. Psy. 1991. 59 (1), 12-19
  • Van Kampen DA, Lovell MR, Pardini JE, Collins MW, Fu FH. The "value added" of neurocognitive testing after sports-related concussion. Am J Sports Med. 2006;34 (10):1630-1635.
  • Kontos, A.P., Elbin, R.J., Covassin, T., Larson, E. (2010). Exploring differences in neurocognitive concussion testing in African American and White athletes. Archives of Clinical Neuropsycholog, 25(8), 734-744.
  • Lau, B.C., Collins, M.W., Lovell, M.R. (2011). Sensitivity and specificity of subacute computerized neurocognitive testing and symptom evaluation in predicting outcomes after sports-related concussion. Am J Sports Med, 39(6):1209-1216.
  • Lovell MR, Collins MW, Iverson GL, et al. Recovery from mild concussion in high school athletes. J Neurosurg. 2003;98(2):296-301.
  • Lovell M, Collins M, Bradley J. Return to play following sports-related concussion. Clin Sports Med. 2004 Jul;23(3):421-41, ix.
  • Maerlender A, Flashman L, Kessler A, et al. Discriminant construct validity of ImPACT: A companion study. Clin Neuropsychol. 2013;27(2):290-299.
  • McCrory P, Meeuwisse W, Dvorak J, et al. Consensus statement on concussion in sport—the 5th international conference on concussion in sport held in Berlin, October 2016. British Journal of Sports Medicine 2017;51:838-847
  • Morse, C. (1993). Does Variability Increase With Age?: An Archival Study of Cognitive Measures. Psychology and Aging, Vol. 8. No. 2.156-164
  • Nakayama Y, Covassin T, Schatz P, Nogle S, Kovan J. Examination of the Test-Retest Reliability of a Computerized Neurocog. Test Battery. Am J Sports Med. 2014
  • Schatz P. Long-term test-retest reliability of baseline cognitive assessments using ImPACT. Am J Sports Med. 2010;38(1):47-53.
  • Schatz P, Maerlender A. A two-factor theory for concussion assessment using ImPACT: memory and speed. Arch Clin Neuropsychol. 2013;28(8):791-797. doi:10.1093/arclin/act077
  • Schatz, P., & Sandel, N. (2013). Sensitivity and specificity of the online version of ImPACT in high school and collegiate athletes. Am J Sports Med, 41(2):321-6.
  • Schatz P, Ferris CS. One-month test-retest reliability of the ImPACT test battery. Arch Clin Neuropsychol. 2013.
  • Taylor CA, Bell JM, Breiding MJ, Xu L. Traumatic Brain Injury-Related Emergency Department Visits, Hospitalizations, and Deaths - United States, 2007 and 2013. MMWR Surveill Summ. 2017;66(9):1-16. Published 2017 Mar 17. doi:10.15585/mmwr.ss6609a1
  • Trahan, D.E. & Larraabee, G.J. (1996). Continuous Visual Memory Test-Revised (CVMT-R™). Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources.
  • Zuckerman, SL, Lee, YM, Odom, MJ, Solomon, GS, Sills, AK. Journal of Neurosurgery-Pediatrics, 2013, 12(2), 103-109.
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